An ankle sprain occurs when the strong ligaments that support the ankle stretch beyond their limits and tear. Ankle sprains are common injuries that occur among people of all ages. They range from mild to severe, depending upon how much damage there is to the ligaments. Without proper treatment and rehabilitation, a more severe sprain can weaken your ankle—making it more likely that you will injure it again. Repeated ankle sprains can lead to long-term problems, including chronic ankle pain, arthritis, and ongoing instability.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body. It is divided into neck pain (cervical), middle back pain (thoracic), lower back pain (lumbar) or coccydynia (tailbone or sacral pain) based on the segment affected. The lumbar area is the most common area for pain, as it supports most of the weight in the upper body. Signs and symptoms of back pain may include:
- Muscle ache
- Shooting or stabbing pain
- Pain that radiates down your leg
- Limited flexibility or range of motion of the back
Physical therapy is the cornerstone of back pain treatment. A physical therapist can apply a variety of treatments, such as heat, ultrasound, electrical stimulation and muscle-release techniques, to your back muscles and soft tissues to reduce pain. As pain improves, the therapist can teach you exercises that can increase your flexibility, strengthen your back and abdominal muscles, and improve your posture. Regular use of these techniques can help prevent pain from returning.
A balance impairment is a condition that makes you feel unsteady or dizzy. If you are standing, sitting, or lying down, you might feel as if you are moving, spinning, or floating. If you are walking, you might suddenly feel as if you are tipping over. The symptoms might include:
- Dizziness or vertigo (a spinning sensation).
- Falling or feeling as if you are going to fall.
- Staggering when you try to walk.
- Lightheadedness, faintness, or a floating sensation.
- Blurred vision.
- Confusion or disorientation.
If you have balance problems a physiotherapy assessment and balance exercises program will be of benefit to you and will help in improving your balance and improve your function.
Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the small, fluid-filled sacs — called bursae — that cushion the bones, tendons and muscles near your joints. Bursitis occurs when bursae become inflamed. The most common locations for bursitis are in the shoulder, elbow and hip. However, you can also have bursitis by your knee, heel and the base of your big toe. Bursitis often occurs near joints that perform frequent repetitive motion. If you suspect bursitis, be sure to consult your physiotherapist. After assessing your biomechanics, your physiotherapist may also recommend specific exercises (stretches or strengthening) to improve your pain and ability to move, plus prevent a recurrence. Untreated bursitis can result in calcification (bone growing) within the bursa and even nastier pain and disability.
Chronic pain is often defined as any pain lasting more than 12 weeks. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation that alerts us to possible injury, chronic pain is very different. Chronic pain persists—often for months or even longer. Chronic pain can range from mild to severe. It can continue day after day or come and go. The pain can feel like:
- A dull ache
Clubfoot is a deformity in which an infant’s foot is turned inward, often so severely that the bottom of the foot faces sideways or even upward. The affected foot, calf, and leg may be smaller than the other In about half of those affected, both feet are involved. Most cases are not associated with other problems Without treatment, people walk on the sides of their feet which causes issues with walking.
Inflammation of the tailbone (coccyx or bony area located deep between the buttocks above the anus) is referred to as coccydynia. Coccydynia is associated with pain and tenderness at the tip of the tailbone between the buttocks. Sitting often worsens coccyx pain. The patient may complain of pain in the coccyx region during, going into, or coming out of a seated position – this is a first indication of coccygodynia. Tenderness over the coccyx is likely present, and the location of tenderness may help to discern between different forms of coccygodynia
A muscle cramp is a strong, painful contraction or tightening of a muscle that comes on suddenly and lasts from a few seconds to several minutes. It often occurs in the legs. A muscle cramp is also called a charley horse. Though generally harmless, muscle cramps can make it temporarily impossible to use the affected muscle. Long periods of exercise or physical labor, particularly in hot weather, can lead to muscle cramps.
A prolapsed disc, commonly referred to as a “slipped” or “herniated” disc, occurs when the gel-like, inner nucleus of an intervertebral disc bulges or seeps through a weakened region in its hard outer casing. Discs may tear for a variety of reasons, including degenerative spine conditions and sudden injuries. Physical therapy often plays a major role in herniated disc recovery. Its methods not only offer immediate pain relief, but they also teach you how to condition your body to prevent further injury.
Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. Signs and symptoms typically begin gradually, worsen over time and then resolve, usually within one to three years. Physiotherapists are highly skilled at assessing and treating people with frozen shoulder. Your physiotherapist will conduct a thorough examination to determine if you have frozen shoulder and its stage. It is important to understand the stage as treatment differs for each stage.
Hamstring muscle injuries — such as a “pulled hamstring” — occur frequently in athletes. They are especially common in athletes who participate in sports that require sprinting, such as track, soccer, and basketball. A pulled hamstring or strain is an injury to one or more of the muscles at the back of the thigh. Most hamstring injuries respond well to simple, nonsurgical treatments.
Hip pain is a common complaint that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues about the underlying cause. Problems within the hip joint itself tend to result in pain on the inside of your hip or your groin. Your hip pain can and often is related to your whole lower limb biomechanics and function. Your assessment should include a functional assessment of your knee, foot and ankle joints, plus your thigh and calf muscles. They all contribute to your hip function. For specific advice regarding your hip pain, please seek the advice of your physiotherapist
Joint pain can be caused by injury affecting any of the ligaments, bursae, or tendons surrounding the joint. Many different conditions can lead to painful joints, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, gout, strains, sprains, and other injuries.
Jumpers knee or patellar tendonitis is an overuse injury that results in pain at the front of the knee, localised at a point at the bottom of the kneecap. Repetitive strain from running or jumping causes inflammation or more likely degeneration of the patella tendon.
The knee is a complex joint with many components, making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. Some of the most common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, and ligament tears.
Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. Knee pain may be the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. Medical conditions — including arthritis, gout and infections — also can cause knee pain.
Ligaments are short bands of tough, flexible tissue, made up of lots of individual fibres, which connect the bones of the body together. Ligaments are strained when the joint is stressed beyond its normal range. Common causes of a ligament injury include twisting or landing awkwardly. The most common torn ligaments are knee ligaments and ankle ligaments.
Lower Back Pain
Pain in the low back can be a result of conditions affecting the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area. Physiotherapists assess, diagnose and intervene without the use of diagnostic imaging. A physical therapist will tailor treatment to your specific problem, based on a thorough examination and the probable causes of your low back pain.
The most common causes of muscle pain are tension, stress, overuse and minor injuries. This type of pain is usually localized, affecting just a few muscles or a small part of your body.
The most common source of myalgia (or muscle pain) is a muscle strain due to overstretching. A muscle strain may also be referred to as a pulled muscle or a muscle tear. A muscle strain can vary in severity from mild to severe and ultimately, a complete muscle rupture.
Neck pain is a common complaint. Neck muscles can be strained from poor posture — whether it’s leaning over your computer or hunching over your workbench. Osteoarthritis also is a common cause of neck pain. your physiotherapist will analyse during your diagnostic consultation and then commence the correction of your individual problems. They’ll also consider other systemic conditions that can cause neck pain eg cancer, and direct you towards the appropriate healthcare practitioner if appropriate.
Nerve compression syndrome occurs when a nerve is squeezed or compacted. It typically occurs at a single location. Nerves in the torso, limbs, and extremities may be affected. Common symptoms include pain, numbness, and muscle weakness at the site of the nerve. Your physiotherapist or doctor can detect where your nerve is pinched by the symptoms that you describe.
Peripheral neuropathy refers to a problem with the peripheral nerves. These nerves send messages from the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body. Research has shown that strengthening exercises for peripheral neuropathy moderately improve muscle strength in people with PN. In addition, exercises to help peripheral neuropathy, when done regularly, may reduce neuropathic pain and can help control blood sugar levels.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. It affects more Canadians than all other forms of arthritis combined. OA is a progressive disease of the whole joint that leads to breakdown of joint cartilage and the underlying bone. Physical therapy can help to reduce the pain, swelling, and stiffness of osteoarthritis, and it can help improve joint function
Post Joint Replacement
Total joint replacement is indicated for disabling hip or knee pain from advanced osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis, or other joint diseases when conservative measures to manage pain and physical dysfunction such as physiotherapy, medications, and joint injection treatments have failed. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after total hip or knee replacement is accepted as a standard and essential treatment. Its aim is to maximize functionality and independence and to minimize complications such as wound infection, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
Post-surgical neural deficits
Posture correction – Posture is the position in which you hold your body upright against gravity while standing, sitting or laying down. Good posture involves training the body to stand, walk, sit and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments. The first step to discovering how to correct your posture is to have your posture type assessed. Your physiotherapist is an expert at posture assessment. Your physiotherapist is the ideal health professional to identify your posture style and provide you with hands-on treatment, posture correction exercises and helpful home products for you to achieve great posture again
The term sciatica describes the symptoms of leg pain—and possibly tingling, numbness, or weakness—that originate in the lower back and travel through the buttock and down the large sciatic nerve in the back of each leg.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. While scoliosis can be caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most scoliosis is unknown. Scoliosis can be improved through the use of physiotherapy treatments that target muscle imbalances and other factors contributing to excessive spinal curvatures.
Shin splints are a common exercise-related problem. The term “shin splints” refers to pain along the inner edge of the shinbone (tibia).Shin splints typically develop after physical activity. They are often associated with running.
Soft Tissue Injury
Soft tissue injuries (STI) are when trauma or overuse occurs to muscles, tendons or ligaments. Most soft tissue injuries are the result of a sudden unexpected or uncontrolled movement like stepping awkwardly off a curb and rolling over your ankle. An experienced Physiotherapist can assess your injury, and confirm both the diagnosis and extent of damage. They will provide you with advice, hands-on treatment and exercises which will promote a prompt and effective recovery, as well as reduce the risk of further injury in the future.
Sports injuries result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities. Sports injuries can affect bones or soft tissue such as ligaments, muscles, and tendons. physiotherapists provide a variety of services to support your health goals. Along with managing a wide range of injuries and health issues, they prescribe exercise programs that utilize strength and cardiovascular training. The physical assessment performed by your physiotherapist is critical to achieving a customized exercise program. It considers your physical activities, health history, and other important information.
Sprains and Strains – already discussed above
Tendonitis is when a tendon swells up and becomes painful after a tendon injury. It happens when a person overuses or injures a tendon, for example, during sport. It is normally linked to an acute injury with inflammation.It often affects the elbow, wrist, finger, thigh, and other parts of the body. Physical therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for tendonitis. Stretching and strengthening the affected muscles and tendons can help you minimize the pain and improve your mobility.
Wry neck, or torticollis, is a painfully twisted and tilted neck. The top of the head generally tilts to one side while the chin tilts to the other side.This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. It can also be the result of damage to the neck muscles or blood supply. Regardless of the patient’s age, physical therapy is the primary treatment for all forms of torticollis. Physical therapists provide treatment to address the impairments that are caused by torticollis. Early treatment results in the best outcomes.
Most people think of physical therapy as something you need if you are injured or have a condition that requires treatment in order to improve. While that is undoubtedly the main purpose of physical therapy, there are actually several other ways in which it can help you. In addition to working to prevent osteoporosis and back or neck pain, physical therapy is a proven weight management tool. When it comes to weight loss management, the physical therapists will work with you to develop an individualized physical activity plan, making sure that all your goals are met and that the regime they have set in place is manageable for you.